Egypt has achieved a remarkable progress in the Education sector concerning expanding the access to basic education and narrowing the percentage between the education enrollment for boys and girls. In 2014, the education enrolment rate was 91 % in primary education and 84 % in preparatory school. However, despite this positive progress, the social, economic, geographical and gender differences resume to limit the access to primary education. There are about 3 % of children at the age of primary school that has never enrolled in school or dropped out, according to a study conducted by UNICEF. Most of these children are from poor families and they live in rural communities.

The UNICEF has rooted the main causes for dropping school to the following reasons:

  • Poverty and the low living conditions
  • Considering education as not an important aspect
  • The problem of remote communities, schools are far from where the children live
  • Social ignorance concerning the education of girls.
  • The limitation of public spending on Education facilities.

Moreover, the UN estimates that about 2 million children live with disabilities in Egypt. The limited capacity of special education schools has resulted in the exclusion of the majority of school-age children with special needs from access to education. According to the Ministry of Education, less than 1.8 per cent of them receive the education services they need. Many schools also have poor infrastructure with around 1 out of 5 school buildings is unfit for use and lacks functional water and sanitation facilities.